Causes of Balanitis and its Treatment


Balanitis – is skin inflammation of a prepuce and the glans penis. The causative agent of the disease is often a banal infection (streptococci, yeasts, staphylococci), or it may be a manifestation of contact dermatitis. They are sexually transmitted. Balanitis is often caused by a mixed micro flora due to violations of the rules of hygiene.

The condition of this disease is poor hygiene, and the presence of a number of diseases:

  • anemia,
  • allergies,
  • diabetes,
  • vitamin deficiencies.

The causes of Balanitis

There are primary and secondary balanitis and balanoposthitis. The cause of primary balanitis may be fungal or bacterial infection that develops under the skin of the foreskin. In congenital phimosis in preputial (foreskin formed) bag can be urinary retention or smegma, which also leads to the development of inflammation. Secondary balanitis occurs as a result of contact with an existing infection in the body from the urethra – gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis and others. Development of the disease contribute to diabetes, allergies (eczema, urticaria), and other diseases, as well as poor hygiene genitals.

Lesions of the glans penis and the foreskin of the skin of non-infectious origin are manifestations of dermatoses such as lichen planus, psoriasis, pemphigus, Behcet’s disease, as well as plasma cell balanitis of Zoon, xerotica obliterans balanoposthitis, erythroplasia Keira. The reason for such a wide variety of pathological changes in the glans penis and the foreskin of the skin are not only differences of damage sources (infectious and non-agent). The skin of the glans penis and the foreskin is exposed to various adverse effects of mechanical, chemical nature, as well as the influence of a number of infectious agents.

Features of anatomical and physiological structure of the genital area, namely an unusually well-developed network of blood and lymphatic vessels, contribute to the development of severe exudative inflammation reaction in the head and skin of the penis and are one of the reasons for the frequent occurrence of complications in the form of balanoposthitis phimosis and paraphimosis.

Diagnosing Balanitis

Diagnosis of balanitis and balanoposthitis is the examination and clarification of complaints. Usually this is limited unless there is suspicion of sexual infections. If there is a suspicion, the complex of analyzes is appointed. For diagnosing the inflammation of the penis head is needed typical complaints of the patient and physical examination. In order to identify the causative agent of inflammation, conducted a series of laboratory tests to scrape the skin on the glans penis and urethral discharge. Also is necessary microscopy of unstained and stained smears. The presence of one or other pathogen can be detected on the results of serological tests.

It is also important to determine the presence or absence of pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infection. Be sure to conduct a study on the blood of HIV-positive reaction, and the reaction of Wasserman (positive reaction proves the infestation of syphilis).

Treating Balanitis

Balanitis requires serious individual approach to the choice of treatment strategy. It is necessary reminded of the need of deontological ethical and professional approach, because awareness of the disease to the patient is very heavy. Principles of confidentiality in this case are of great importance. Individual therapy course picks up after the diagnostic research dermatologist or urologist. Uncomplicated early stage of the disease does not require long and extensive treatment. An important part of treatment and prevention methods is to carry out thorough and frequent washing the genitals with soap solution, as well as a variety of antiseptic solutions.

Neglected cases of the disease require appropriate “heavy artillery” in the form of a long course of antibiotics for local and general action. In chronic forms of inflammatory medications are already ineffective. Therefore, in such cases, surgery is appointed. In severe forms of the disease (eg, in the form of a circular erosive balanitis) is recommended the use of road-spectrum antibiotics. If there is a connection of a secondary infection, the doctors in his therapeutic tactics combine antibiotics with sulfa drugs. As a means of local action are appointed washing with antiseptic solutions and herbal infusions.


Sometimes treatment requires a more serious approach and the use of strong medications:

  1. Great importance in the treatment of Candida balanitis is the appointment of antifungal medications of topical or systemic action and compliance with hygienic measures.
  2. The inflammation has catarrhal character, and sometimes takes the form of erosive balanitis. Treatment of gonorrhea leads to regression of the manifestations of balanoposthitis.
  3. Treatment of anogenital warts genital includes surgical coagulation of warts with mandatory immunomodulating and antiviral treatment.
  4. There are erosive, pock ulcerous and gangrenous forms. The main distinguishing feature – the lack of regional lymphadenitis (usually). It is particularly important to distinguish in the discharge of treponemes and Vincent spirochete. Here it is necessary to appoint acidic antiseptics: oxygen water, potassium permanganate, lubrication defeats 1-2% solution of silver nitrate.

How to prevent Balanitis

Some preventive measures can help you avoid infection and further disease:

  1. Active and healthy lifestyle. Gymnastics, aimed at the development of pelvic and lumbar spine, improves blood circulation in the pelvic organs.
  2. Health genitals. Twice a day it is necessary to carry out the washing of the genitals, thoroughly cleaning the space between the foreskin and the head. Otherwise, there is accumulated grease, may join a fungus or bacteria and develop post.
  3. Daily change of underwear.
  4. Health of sexual activity. It is not necessary to lead a promiscuous sex life. Your partner must be healthy in terms of genital infections.
  5. Do not abuse the sex contacts. This leads to injuries and fractures of the penis.
  6. Stop smoking and alcohol use.
  7. The control of glucose (sugar) in the blood.